Religion was a constant for medieval Londoners. The vast majority were Christians (Jews were expelled from England c. 1290) and identified strongly with their local parish, which provided not only religious services, but also charity and a strong social community, particularly through the many parish gilds or fraternities that Londoners could join. Monasteries, priories, hospitals, and many almshouses were run by religious orders and represented some of the chief landlords of London because of the numerous properties they owned.
This section has six parts: 1) Religious Houses; 2) Hospitals and Almshouses; 3) Parishes and Parishioners (including a section on St Paul’s cathedral); 4) Fraternities; 5) Clergy; and 6) Jews in Medieval London. See also the Wills page and the section on Church Courts on the Law page.
(1) Religious Houses
For an introduction, see The Religious Houses of London and Middlesex, ed. Caroline M. Barron and Matthew Davies (London, 2007), which reprints the original descriptions of religious houses published for the London (1909) and Middlesex (1969) volumes of the Victoria History of the Counties of England (the VCH), but with new bibliographical introductions, revised lists of the heads of houses, and additional maps and figures. The London VCH and Middlesex VCH volumes on religious houses are available online at BHO. See also Nick Holder, The Friaries of Medieval London: From Foundation to Dissolution (Woodbridge, 2007) for an interdisciplinary approach that draws on archaeological, architectural, cartographic, and documentary evidence.
List of Monastic Houses in London: Useful Wikipedia site listing the names, founders and foundation date, dedication, and order affiliation of all religious houses in medieval London, with links to maps, photos, and other data for the locations.
Religious Houses in London and Environs: W. Dugdale, Monasticon anglicanum; a history of the abbies and other monasteries, hospitals, frieries, and cathedral and collegiate churches, with their dependencies…, ed. R. C. Taylor, B. Bandinel, H. Ellis, J. Caley, J. Stevens, and R. Dodsworth, 6 vols in 8 (London, new edn, 1846). On archive.org, Haithi Trust, (lacking vol. 1), and Google books. Contains Latin documents (charters, accounts of spiritual and temporal possessions, extracts from chronicles), lists of heads of the religious houses, and accounts (such as the Valor ecclesiasticus) compiled when the house was dissolved in the sixteenth century, among other documentary material. In volume 1: Westminster Abbey (pp, 265-330). In volume 3: Kilburn Priory (pp. 422-30); In volume 4: Clerkenwell (pp. 77-87); Stratford ate Bowe (St Leonard Bromley), pp. 119-23; Haliwell Priory (390-97), St Helen’s (551-55). In volume 5: Bermondsey Priory/Abbey (pp. 85-103; Stratford Langthorne (586-88); St Mary Graces Abbey (717-19). Volume 6, part 1: Charterhouse (pp. 6-11); Holy Trinity Aldgate (150-65), St Mary Overey (169-73); Merton Priory (245-47); St Bartholomew Smithfield Priory (291-98); Syon Abbey (540-44). Volume 6, part 2 contains documents for hospitals (see below), alien priories, and other houses: Hampton Preceptory (802), Ruislip Priory (1050), Tooting Priory (1053), Harmondsworth Priory (1057). Volume 6, part 3 contains short notices of colleges of canons: St Martin le Grand (pp. 1323-25); Bishop Stortford (1453); Barking College (1456); Holmes College at St Paul’s, Jesus Commons College, Lancaster College St Paul’s, Leadenhall College, Guildhall College (1457); Poultney College, College in the Tower of London (1458); Black Friars (1487), Grey Friars (1514), Minoresses (1553), White Friars (1572), Crutched Friars (1586), Austin Friars (1594), Friars de Poenitentia (1607).
The London Franciscans C. L. Kingsford, The Grey Friars of London (Aberdeen, 1915). Contains the Latin Register of this Franciscan convent, which records details about the structures and monuments in the church and cloister, donations of rents and property, the names of friars and those buried at Grey Friars, and other documents relating to the history of the convent and the Franciscan order. The Appendix contains a wide variety of other documents, such as leases, payments for saying masses, and records relating to the dissolution of the convent in the sixteenth century. Originally published as volume 6 of the publications of the British Society of Franciscan Studie See also Additional Material For the History of the Grey Friars, London, ed. C. L Kingsford (Manchester, 1922 ). A companion volume to The Grey Friars comprising addenda, corrigenda and additional documents. It also includes extracts of wills relating to the Grey Friars (1374-1543.) Originally published as part of Collectanea Franciscana 10 (1922). On BHO
(2) Hospitals and Almshouses
Medieval hospitals had more functions than modern hospitals. They were religious institutions that cared for the sick poor (those with any money sought medical care at home) and aged, offered food and lodging to travelers (especially pilgrims), rented out housing within their precincts to healthy individuals, and on occasion even provided schooling. For a discussion and list of the hospitals and almshouses in late medieval London, see C. Rawcliffe “The Hospitals of Later Medieval London,” Medical History 28 (1984): 1-21. For the lazar houses, which were usually outside the city walls, see M. B. Honeybourne, “The Leper Hospitals of the London Area,” Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society 21 (1967): 4-54.
London hospitals: W. Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum, vol. 6, part ii, ed. J. Caley, H. Ellis, and B. Bandinel (London, 1846) contains the Latin texts of charters, ordinances, and lists of properties and rents of many London hospitals: St Mary Bethlehem (p. 621), St Mary Spital without Bishopsgate (p. 623), St Bartholomew (p. 626), St Giles without (p. 635), St James at Westminster (p. 637), St Thomas of Acon (p. 645), St Thomas, Southwark (p. 672), Domus Conversorum (p. 682), St Katherine near the Tower (p. 694), Elsing spital near Cripplegate (p. 703-8), Barking parish next to the Tower (p. 708), Savoy Hospital, Westminster (p. 726), Whittinghton College and Hospital (p. 738), St Anthony’s (p. 766), Charing Cross (p. 767), St Giles without Cripplegate (p. 767), The Papey (p. 767), St. Paul’s (p. 767). On Haithi Trust.
St. Bartholomew’s Hospital: E. A. Webb, The Records of St. Bartholomew’s Priory and St. Bartholomew the Great, West Smithfield: volume 1 and volume 2, by E. A. Webb (Oxford, 1921). A history of the Augustinian priory until 1560, when it was dissolved. St Bartholomew the Great was a hospital founded for the sick poor; its staff included a master and both brothers and sisters. The volume also includes Latin transcriptions and English abstracts of many primary sources, including rentals, charters, letters patent, and wills. On archive.org, BHO mand Haithi Trust.
Cartulary of St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, Founded 1123: A Calendar, ed. Nellie J. M. Kerling (London, 1973). Begun by Brother John Cok c. 1418 to record charters and deeds of properties owned by the hospital,the cartulary also includes copies of letter patents, royal pardons, papal bulls, episcopal letters, a rental of London properties in 1456, and a chronicle of the kings of England to Henry VI. Many early records are included since the hospital was founded in 1123 as part of the priory of Austin Canons at Smithfield While the main records are deeds of the hospital’s properties organized by location, the cartulary also contains information about the masters, brethren, and sisters who ran the hospital. Includes a useful introduction and very extensive index.
T. Hugo, “The Hospital of Le Papey in the City of London,” Transactions of the Middlesex and London Archaeological Society 5 (1877): 183-221. Founded in 1442 by four priests for poor and impotent priests. It was associated with the church of St Augustine Pappey, which was annexed to the parish of All Hallows on the Wall. The article incudes English translations of the hospital’s foundation charter and other documents.
The Building Accounts of the Savoy Hospital of London 1512-1520, ed. C. Stanford, Westminster Abbey Series 8 (Woodbridge, 2015). Founded by King Henry VII for 100 poor men and women who were to commemorate the king through prayer. The building complex was highly innovative at the time, The accounts (WAM 63509) record the names and wages of craftsmen working on the project, as well as details on building materials and insights into the design and structure of the complex, including a cross-shaped ward.
St Thomas the Martyr Hospital, Southwark: Chartulary of the Hospital of St. Thomas the Martyr, Southwark (1213-1525), trans. L. Drucker and ed. F. G. Parson (privately printed, 1932). The hospital was comprised of brothers and sisters. Its cartulary (BL Stowe MS. 942) was written c, 1525 to record the hospital’s charters, privileges (such as tithes and burial rights in St Mary Southwark), and other documents. For a discussion of the contents, see “’Hospitals: St Thomas, Southwark” in A History of the County of London: Volume 1, London Within the Bars, Westminster and Southwark, ed. William Page (London, 1909), pp. 538-542, on BHO.
Whittington’s Almshouses: Jean Imray, The Charity of Richard Whittington (London, 1968). Whittington, three-times mayor of London, left instructions for his executors to establish almshouses with a college of priests at St Michael Paternoster church. For the Middle English ordinances of the almshouses, see Imray, pp 109-21; for the Latin text of the foundation ordinances and college of priests, see Dugdale, Monasticon, vol. 6, part ii, pp. 738-47.
(3) Parishes and Parishioners
A variety of primary sources provide insights into medieval Londoners as parishioners, which for many was their primary social and emotional affiliation outside the family. Churchwardens accounts were kept by churchwardens, elected lay representatives of the parish who accounted for revenues (from collections, weddings, burials, church festivals, donations, and bequests) and expenses, which included payments for new items for the church (candles, vestments, plate, pews, statutes, etc..), new building and repairs, plays and other entertainment and rituals, as well as wages for a wide array of those providing services and materials to the parish church. Churchwardens accounts offer the best glimpse into parish life, although few survive before the mid fifteenth century. Other primary sources for studying London parishes are inventories of the vestments, books, plate, relics, church furniture, and other items owned by the parish, and occasionally deeds or even cartularies survive for parishes that list details of their revenue-producing properties. For parish gilds, see also Fraternities below.
For a good overview of the archaeological and architectural evidence for the physical structures and and internal furnishings of London’s parish churches, along with a helpful gazteteer, see John Schofield, “Saxon and Medieval Parish Churches in the City of London: A Review,” Transactions of London and Middlesex Archaeological Society.45 (1994): 23-145.
For a searchable list of the standardized parish names used by MLD, as well as links to maps of parish boundaries and other information, see London Parishes.
- All Hallows on the Wall. Churchwardens’ Accounts of the Parish of Allhallows, London Wall, 1455-1536, ed. C. Welch, London and Middlesex Archaeological Society (1912). Includes a facsimile of “The fruyte of redempcyon by Symon the Anker of London Wall,” printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1514.
- St Andrew Holborn. C. M. Barron and J. Roscoe, “The Medieval Parish Church of St. Andrew Holborn, London Topographical Record 24 (1980): 31-60. The appendix prints the Middle English lightwardens’ accounts for 1477-78 (BL Harley Roll H.28). See also the “Book of Thomas Bentley” (Guildhall Library MS 4249), composed in 1584 from the parish accounts dating from Henry VI and no longer extant; it is transcribed as the appendix of Edward Griffith, Cases of Supposed Exemption from Poor Rates Claimed on Grounds of Extra Parochiality with a Preliminary Sketch of the Ancient History of the Parish of St Andrew Holborn (London, 1831), on Google books.
- St Andrew Hubbard: The Church Records of St Andrew Hubbard, Eastcheap, c1450-c1570, ed. C. Burgess, London Record Society 34 (1999). Middle English. On BHO. First printed in installments in J. C. Crosthwaite, ed., “Ancient Churchwardens’ Accounts of a City Parish,” British Magazine and Monthly Register vol. 31(1846): 241-50 covers 1454-1460; 394-404 covers 1460-1468; 526-37 covers 1469-1476; vol. 32 (1847): 30-44 covers 1476-1480; 144-57 covers 1480-86; vol. 33 (1848): 564-79 covers 1495-1502 and 664-77 covers 1504-1509; vol. 34 (18489): 15-33 covers 1509-1521; later accounts are in vols. 34, 35 and 36. On Haithi Trust.
- St Antoninus Watling Street: See Visitation section below.
- St Augustinus Watling Street: See Visitation section below.
- St Benet Gracechurch: See Visitation section below.
- St Benet Paul’s Wharf: See Visitation section below.
- St Botolph Billingsgate: See Visitation section below.
- St Giles Cripplegate: See Visitation section below.
- St Gregory by St Paul: See Visitation section below.
- St Helen Bishopsgate: See Visitation section below.
- St John Walbrook: See Visitation section below.
- St John Zachary Maiden Lane: See Visitation section below.
- St Lawrence Pountney: A History of the Parish of St. Laurence Pountney, London, including, … an account of Corpus Christi (or Pountney) College, in the said Parish, by H. B. Wilson (London, 1831). Includes many Latin documents in the footnotes, including records on the foundation and endowment (by Sir John Pultneye, a four-time mayor of London, of the Chapel of Corpus Christi and St John the Baptist as a college for a master and seven chaplains by 1332. Also includes churchwardens accounts dating from 1530 and property deeds and charters. On Google books.
- St Margaret’s Southwark: “Original Papers: St. Margaret’s Southwark,” ed. J. Payne Collier, British Magazine and Monthly Register 32 (1 November 1847): 481-96. Middle English churchwardens’ accounts from 1445 on. On Haithi Trust.
- St Martin Orgar: See Visitation section below.
- St Mary Aldermanbury: See Visitation section below.
- St Mary Bridge Street: A. G. Dyson, “A Calendar of the Cartulary of the Parish Church of St. Margaret, Bridge Street,” Guildhall Studies in London History 1:3 (1974): 163-71. Collection of deeds and wills for properties held by the parish (also contains a list of other such cartularies)
- St Mary At Hill: Medieval Records of a London City Church St Mary At Hill, 1420-1559, ed. Henry Littlehales, Early English Text Society, o.s., 125, 128 (London, 1904-5). Middle English accounts from 1420-29, 1476-1559, as well as inventories of the church furniture (1431, 1523, 1553), and inventory of the content of the house of John Port, c. 1531. On BHO and Google books.
- St Mary Magdalen Milkstreet: See Visitation section below.
- St Mary Magdalen Old Fish Street: See Visitation section below.
- St Michael Cornhill: The Accounts of the Churchwardens of the Parish of St. Michael, Cornhill, in the City of London, from 1456 to 1608, ed. W. H. Overall (1812). Part of a book that contains other records, such as an appointment of a choirmaster and customs on tithes, and miscellaneous memoranda on building projects; rules for the responsibilities of the churchwardens, clerks, and priests, and the fees they can charge; the conduct of visitations by the bishop; and deeds of properties of the parish. On archive.org.
- St Michael le Querne: See Visitation section below.
- St Michael Queenhithe: See Visitation section below.
- St Olave Jewry: See Visitation section below.
- St Pancras: See Visitation section below.
- St Peter Cheap: W. Sparrow Simpson, “Inventory of the Vestments, Plate and Books, belonging to the Church of St. Peter Cheap, in the City of London, in the Year 1431,” Journal of the British Archaeological Association 24 (1869): 150-60. Middle English list of the parish’s vestments, draperies, banners, books, plate, and other items.
- St Peter le Poer: See Visitation section below.
- St Peter Paul’s Wharf: See Visitation section below.
- St Stephen Coleman Street: See Visitation section below.
- St Thomas Apostle: See Visitation section below.
St Paul’s Cathedral: There are many publications on the architecture, bishop, clergy, estates, precinct, and history of St Paul’s, which dates from the seventh century. This section lists the chief primary sources for the cathedral as an ecclesiastical institution and holder of London properties and privileges. For primary sources on the bishop, dean, and canons, see the section on Clergy below.
Charters of St Paul’s, London. Ed. S. E. Kelly. Anglo-Saxon Charters X, British Academy (Oxford, 2004). Edition of 32 charters involving mainly grants of land to St Paul’s from the seventh to eleventh century, along with four other documents, including an episcopal letter, will, and two agreements involving land. Some charters concern remission of toll on ships given to the bishop of London or contributions from his estates for the manning of a ship. Kelly provides a thorough contextualizing introduction on the early cathedral, diocese, and the bishop’s estates, as well as a concordance of previous editions, extended discussion of each charter, indices, and a glossary.
W. Sparrow Simpson, ‘The Charters and Statutes of the College of the Minor Canons in St Paul’s Cathedral, London’, Archaeologia, 43 (1871): 165–200. Latin charter of incorporation (1394) and statutes of the cathedral’s college of minor canons, which treat their election, oaths, offices, duties, behavior at meals, financial support, meetings, and need to avoid internal (gossip, violence) and external (games, prostitutes) problems. Prefaced by a detailed discussion of this group of canons. On Google Books.
W. Sparrow Simpson, Documents Illustrating the History of S. Paul’s Cathedral. Camden Society, new series 26 (1880). The volume contains the following medieval documents (in Latin): indulgences for the repair of St Paul’s; a papal bull on a prebendal estate; prayers in commemoration of Thomas de Lancaster, St Erkenwald, and Sts Peter and Paul; and collects said on certain feast days (pp. 1-40); a chronicle covering 1130-1341 focused on the election and death of London bishops, the cathedral fabric, and other events of concern to the cathedral community (pp. 41-57); extracts on St Paul’s, 1040-1399, from another chronicle (pp. 58-60, 222-28); obits observed by the cathedral in the time of Richard II, including the payments made to various canons and clerks (pp. 61-106); ordinance for the election of a new prioress of St Helen’s Bishopgate, 1204-16 (pp. 107-11); and proceedings on a seal stolen from a cathedral priest. The Appendix contains a list of indulgences, 1201-1387; a list of altars in Old St Paul’s; a list of chapels in and near St Paul’s; a letter from Edward II condemning the commemoration of Thomas of Lancaster; a Middle English Life of St Erkenwald, taken from The Golden Legend; notes on those whose obits were observed by the cathedral, and a note on the earthquake of 1382 (pp. 175-202). On archive.org, Google Books, and Haithi Trust.
W. Sparrow Simpson, S. Paul’s Cathedral and Old City Life: Illustrations of Civil and Cathedral Life from the Thirteenth to the Sixteenth Centuries (London, 1894). The author incorporates quotations and extended extracts from primary sources in discussing a wide variety of interactions between the city and the cathedral; some of the material is drawn from his previous publications. Medieval material treats the civic elite, clergy, sanctuary, sermons, celebrations, relics, disputes, and punishments at the cathedral. On Haithi Trust.
Visitations of Parish Churches: Visitations were conducted by church authorities, such as the religious house or official who had the advowson or patronage of the parish church. Most visitations were simply to check if the church and its clergy were properly equipped to do their job, but others went further to report on problems among the parishioners, particularly at the end of the middle ages when there was growing concern over moral offenses.
- Visitations of Churches Belonging to St. Paul’s Cathedral in 1297 and in 1458, ed. W. Sparrow Simpson, Camden Society, n.s., 55 (1895). Includes short visitations in 1458 of St Giles Cripplegate and St Gregory’s near St Paul’s, and St Pancras in Kentish Town which name the parish wardens and note problems with parish clergy. On Google Books; also Haithi Trust in US.
- W. Sparrow Simpson, “Visitations of Certain Churches in the City of London in the Patronage of St. Paul’s Cathedral Church, between the Years 1138 and 1250,” Archaeologia 55:2 (1897): 283-300. The appendix contains Latin inventories of twenty parish churches in London, which list vestments, liturgical books, and plate belonging to the parish churches, as well as rents they owe. Parishes are: St Antoninus Watling Street, St Augustinus Watling Street, St Benet Gracechurch, St Benet Paul’s Wharf, St Botolph Billingsgate, St Giles Cripplegate, St Helen Bishopsgate, St John Walbrook, St John Zachary Maiden Lane, St Martin Orgar, St Mary Aldermanbury, St Mary Magdalen Milkstreet, St Mary Magdalen Old Fish Street, St Michael le Quern, St Michael Queenhithe, St Olave Jewry, St Peter le Poor, St Peter Paul’s Wharf, St Stephen Coleman Street, St Thomas Apostle. On Google books. See also the inventories of church furniture for 1431, 1523, and 1553 at St Mary At Hill (above).
Fraternities (also known as brotherhoods or religious guilds/parish guilds) were voluntary self-help associations of men and women who came together to pray for their members (living and deceased) and to provide charitable help to each other. Some were attached to occupational crafts, others operated out of a parish or chapel, and some were independent operations, though most did center on one place of worship. Many fraternities are mentioned only in testatators’ bequests, but accounts and other records survive for others. See C. M. Barron, “The Parish Fraternities of Medieval London,” in The Church in Pre-reformation Society: Essays in Honour of F.R.H. Du Boulay, eds. C. M. Barron and C. Harper-Bill (Woodbridge, 1985), reprinted in Medieval London: Collected Papers of Caroline M. Barron, ed. C. Barron, M. Carlin, and J. T. Rosenthal (Kalamazoo, 2019), 135-63.
H. F. Westlake, The Parish Guilds of Medieval England (1919). Provides short summaries (pp 180-88) of the origin, foundation date, dedication, religious provisions, purpose, and primary benefits for members of 30 London gilds, who submitted these returns as part of a 1389 inquiry into the properties and exemptions claimed by guilds. Some are printed in full in English Gilds, eds. J. T. Smith and L. T. Smith (1870). The six Middle English returns for London are printed in A Book of London English, eds. Chambers and Daunt. See also C. M. Barron and L. Wright, “The Middle English Guild Certificates of 1388/89,” Nottingham Medieval Studies 39 (1995): 108-45. On archive.org.
A Book of London English 1384–1425, ed, R. W. Chambers and M. Daunt (Oxford 1931). Includes (pp. 40-60) the returns of six London parish guilds in Middle English .
Members of the Fraternity of St Nicholas The Bede Roll of the Fraternity of St Nicholas, ed. N.W. James and V.A. James, London Record Society, 39 (London, 2004). The Fraternity of St Nicholas was the brotherhood of parish clerks. Bede rolls were lists of people to be prayed for, in this case, c. 7000 people between 1449 and 1521 who joined the fraternity. Members included c. 900 parish clerks (and c. 300 of their wives), as well as clergy and nobles, but most members were middle-ranking Londoners who paid to become members of the fraternity expecting extra prayers, and the more elaborate funeral ceremony that the parish clerks could provide. Among the members were lay choir clerks and professional ecclesiastical musicians.
Parish Fraternity Register: Fraternity of the Holy Trinity and SS. Fabian and Sebastian in the Parish of St Botolph without Aldersgate, ed. P. Basing, London Record Society 18 (1982). Middle English records of two fraternities that joined together in the fifteenth century. Covers 1377-1463 with some memoranda to 1548. Includes lists of members, obits, accounts, and records of the fraternities’ properties. The fraternities’ ordinances were also printed in English Gilds, ed. Toulmin Smith, Early English Text Society o.s. 40 (1870), 9-13. On BHO.
English Gilds, ed. J. Toulmin Smith and L. Toulmin Smith, Early English Text Society o.s. 40 (1870), pp. 3-13 include the Middle English ordinances of the fraternities of the parishes of St James Garlikhithe (associated with the Joiners), St Katherine Aldersgate, and Saints Fabian and Sebastian, Aldersgate in 1389. On archive.org, Google books, and Haithi Trust.
H. C. Coote, Ordinances of Some Secular Guilds of London, from 1354 to 1496. Reprinted from the Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society [vol. 4, pt. 1, 1871] To which are added, ordinances of St. Margaret Lothbury, 1456, and orders by Richard, Bishop of London for Ecclesiastical Officers, 1597, ed. J. R. Daniel-Tyssen (London, 1871). Includes the ordinances of: the fraternity of Glovers in 1354; the brotherhood of St Loye with the craft of Blacksmiths in 1434; the fraternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the craft of Shearmen in 1452; the fraternity of St Katherine in 1495; the brotherhood of St Christopher of the craft of Water-bearers in 1496; on clerks’ wages in St Mary Lothbury in 1456. On Haithi Trust and Google books.
Memorials of the Guild of Merchant Taylors of the Fraternity of St. John the Baptist in the City of London, ed. C M Clode (London, 1875). The Tailors (called the Merchant Taylors from c. 1503on) were a craft or guild and a fraternity. The early accounts are in French and date from 1400; the later accounts are Middle English. They include salaries of priests and clerks; repairs to the Hall and its two chapels; legal expenses, burials and obits; decorations and entertainment during feasts. Revenues include rents from their properties and entry fees from (named) members. Other medieval records: inventories of plate, jewelry, furnishings and other possessions, 1491 and 1512; menu for a dinner in 1430; charters of the company, 1326-1465; ordinances, articles, and oaths; and bequests to the company. On archive.org, BHO, and Haithi Trust.
Taxes and Rent Assessments of London Clergy The Church in London 1375-1392, ed. A. K. McHardy, London Record Society, 13 (London, 1977). Lists: (1) clergy who paid the subsidy of 1380 in London and the poll taxes of 1379-81 in London, the archdeaconry of Middlesex, and the deanery of Bow; (2) a 1392 assessment of rents on properties held by ecclesiastical landlords in London, organized by ward; (3) acta of William Courtenay, Bishop of London, 1375–81. On BHO.
London Clergy Virginia Davis, Clergy in London in the Late Middle Ages: A Register of Clergy Ordained in the Diocese of London Based on Episcopal Ordination Lists 1361-1539 (London, 2000). Includes a CD-ROM containing a database (using Idealist software) of c. 30,000 secular and regular clergy ordained in London, along with a short book that introduces the database.
London Diocesan Clergy: Novum repertorium ecclesiasticum parochiale londinense; or, London diocesan clergy succession from the earliest time to the year 1898, with copious notes. Compiled by George Hennessy, 2 vols. (London, 1898). Contains lists, organized by religious institution and parish, in chronological order, of all London diocesan clergy for the medieval period and later. Hennessey includes notes on each cleric’s other appointments, dates of service, wills, and the patrons with right of presentation, drawn from bishop’s registers, cathedral records, patent rolls, and wills. His lists on cathedral clergy has now been replaced by the Fasti volumes, but his lists of parish rectors and vicars remain valuable. On Google Books and Haithi Trust.
Cathedral and Senior Diocesan Clergy: Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: Volume 1, St. Paul’s, London, ed. D. E. Greenway (London: Institute of Historical Research, 1968). Chronological lists organized by office, of bishops of London and the senior clergy of St Paul’s cathedral and the diocese of London (such as archdeacons). Highly abbreviated, but gives a wealth of details about each man’s education, dates of service, other offices, and career trajectory. For corrections, see Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1300-1541: Volume 12, Introduction and Errata, ed. J. M. Horn (London, 1967), pp 62-65. See also Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1300-1541: Volume 5, St Paul’s, London, ed. J. M. Horn (London, 1963).
English Episcopal Acta: A British Academy series published by Oxford University Press. English Episcopal Acta, volume 15: London 1076-1187, ed. F. Neininger (2000); volume. 26: London 1189-1228, ed. D. P. Johnson (2003); volume 38: London 1229-1280, ed. P. Hoskin (2011); volume 39: London 1280-1303, ed. P. Hoskin (2011). Includes full texts of administrative documents issued by the bishops of London, with English headings and extensive notes. Each volume contains a useful introduction that summarizes the acta and discusses the bishops’ household, staff, and administrative practices. Volume 39, the last in the series, includes itineraries of the bishops of London and indices of persons, places, and subjects.
Dean of St Paul’s cathedral: The Household Accounts of William Worsley Dean of St Paul’s 1479–97, ed. H. Kleineke and S. Hovland (Richard III and Yorkist History Trust, 2003). The accounts, accompanied by a helpful contextualizing introduction and glossary, have been calendared in English to remove repetitive material. They include information on wages and salaries paid to the dean’s household staff and his expenses on victualling, clothing and liveries, entertainment, travel, and building repairs at his houses in London and Hackney. His income came from many estates but mainly in the form of farming out his demesne lands; a rent collector’s account is also transcribed. The appendices contain the names of those canons present at his election, along with biographical details about all those named in his accounts, many of them Londoners. On BHO.
(6) Jews in Medieval London
Calendar of the Plea Rolls of the Exchequer of the Jews, vol. I, Henry III 1218-1272, ed. J. M. Rigg, Jewish Historical Society of England (London, 1905); at Haithi Trust and Google books. See also: vol. II, Edward I 1273-1275, ed. J. M. Rigg (Edinburgh, 1910); vol. III, Edward I 1275-1277, ed. H. Jenkinson (Colchester, 1929); vol. IV Henry II 1272, Edward I 1275-1277,ed. H. G. Richardson (London, 1972); Plea Rolls of the Exchequer of the Jews preserved in the Public Record Office, vol. V, ed. S. Cohen (London, 1992); Plea Rolls of the Exchequer of the Jews preserved in the National Archives (formerly the Public Record Office), vol. VI, ed. P. Brand (London, 2005). English translation of the court proceedings conducted by the Exchequer of the Jews (TNA E9 class of documents), which handled disputes regarding loans made by Jew to Christians, especially in terms of recovering properties pledged for the loans, stars (contracts involving Jews), and the king’s tallages on the Jews. Many cases involve London, and there are also some for Southwark. See also Select Pleas, Starr and Other Records from the Plea Rolls of the Exchequer of the Jew, A.D. 1220-1284, ed. J. M. Rigg, Selden Society 15 (London, 1902), which includes selections from the pleas, but in English translation with facing page original Latin. At Haithi Trust and archive.org.
The Jews of Angevin England: Documents and Records from Latin and Hebrew Sources, Printed and Manuscript, for the first time Collected and Translated, ed. J. Jacobs (London, 1893). English translations of extracts from laws, chronicles, the pipe rolls, plea rolls, and other records regarding the Jews in England, most from before c. 1206, including a list of the names of Jews in twelfth-century England. See the index for the many entries on London. Note that these are selections and that Jacob’s theories on the role of Jews in England are now rather dated. On archive.org and Google books.
Shetaroth: Hebrew Deeds of English Jews before 1290, ed. M. D. Davis, Publications of the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition no. 2 (London, 1888). Hebrew originals and English translations; those for London 1250-90 are on pp. 343-59. On HeinOnline (subscription required)
Starrs and Jewish Charters: preserved in the British Museum with illustrative documents. ed. I. Abrahams, H. P. Stokes, H. Loewe, F. P. Lincoln, and W. S. Holdsworth, Jewish Historical Society of England, 3 vols. (1930-32). Translation of starrs (contracts involving Jews), deeds, and charters, especially those from monastic borrowers.
The Medieval English Jews and Royal Officials – Entries of Jewish Interest in the English Memoranda Rolls, 1266 – 1293, ed. Z. E. Rokéah (Jerusalem, 2000). Records all mentions of individual Jews and their debts, Jewish converts, and the Exchequer and justices of the Jews. The Exchequer Memoranda Rolls (TNA E159) kept track of debts due to the king, so these are mainly financial records in terms of the crown’s efforts to force Jews to pay up (sometimes with repressive measures) or compel Christian debtors to pay the king what they originally owed to Jews, including records of revenues from the sale of Jewish possessions and houses after the expulsion.
E. Rokéah, “Some Accounts of Condemned Jews’ Property in the Pipe and Chancellors’ Rolls, Part I,” Bulletin of the Institute of Jewish Studies1 (1973): 19-42; “Part II.” 2 (1974): 59-82; “Part III,” 3 (1975): 41-66. Includes those condemned for money clipping in Lincoln and London in the late 1270s.
J. Hillaby, “London: The 13th-century Jewry Revisited,” Jewish Historical Studies32 (1990): 89-158. Draws on the Cheapside property study and tallages to provide detailed discussion of Jewish properties and the family connections of richer Jews in the London community. Includes lists of London Jews who paid tallages/taxes in 1221, 1223, 1239, 1241, and 1255, and the Jewish owners, value, location, and Christian successors to 22 Jewish properties after 1290 when the Jews were expelled from England.
M. Adler, “The Testimony of the London Jewry against the Ministers of Henry III,” Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England 14 (1940): 141-185. Includes the Latin original and English translation of testimony in a Curia Regis roll of 1234 (TNA KB26/115B) in which leading London Jews detail the extortions of Henry’s Poitevan councilors. He also summarizes the trail of two corrupt justices of the Jews in 1286.